Saturday, November 22, 2014

Saving Kirk's Christmas

  
 KirkCameron-SavingChristmas_slide

    So me and my wife Just got done watching Kirk Cameron's"Saving Christmas". I started out with irritation because we had a gift card and the movie theater wouldn't accept the card because we switched companies :( So Now I am out $20 :( and I am not aguy with a lot of money either. :(
  Anyways..  Kirk starts off in a tacky over decorated Christmas living room.  He is sporting a really poorly grown beard and he discusses how there are people out there who are against Christmas.  That He wanted to use the film to make it his mission to bring the Christmas spirit back.
Now when I had listened to Kirk plug his movie on "The Mike Gallagher Show" one would assume that the majority of the movie would be focused on the leftist out to destroy Christmas.
  But in the movie the only time the idea of a leftist Christmas exile is brought in the form of a ridiculous goof ball Christians privately giving whackjob conspiracy theories.
So then the right-winger who is destroying Christmas is His whack job Brother in law who is quiet and doesn't want to enjoy the party but sits outside. Kirk Cameron decides to embark on a quest to avenge his sisters loneliness.  He confronts his brother in law in the car and sets forth His case.
He focuses on 3 issues
1. the manger scene
2. the Christmas tree
3. Santa Claus
1.  Kirk comes up with a creative typology of the manger and the "swaddling clothes" being symbolic of the burial garments At Christ death.
Luke 2:16 And they came with haste, and found Mary, and Joseph, and the babe lying in a manger.
I find no text necessitating that the Babe was in a cave.  This is a possibility, but not necessary.  If the text does not demand we have such a scene then it begs the question if it intended the parallel.  But this is not a dangerous conclusion or anything.
2.  the defense of trees I find deceptive.He shows various typologies in the bible leading us to trees.  The Tree of the knowledge of good and evil  The Tree of Life and the Tree of the cross.
These are all fine.  Yet kirk even after he has heard the accusation does not bring up the fact that the Bible warns against tree idolotry.
Jeremiah 10:
10 Hear ye the word which the Lord speaketh unto you, O house of Israel.
Thus saith the Lord: “Learn not the way of the heathen, and be not dismayed at the signs of heaven; for the heathen are dismayed at them.
For the customs of the people are vain; for one cutteth a tree out of the forest, the work of the hands of the workman, with the ax.
They deck it with silver and with gold; they fasten it with nails and with hammers, that it move not.
They are upright as the palm tree, but speak not; they must be borne, because they cannot go. Be not afraid of them, for they cannot do evil, neither also is it in them to do good.”
 
We have to be careful to warn against this type of idolatry even if we do not feel we are committing it.
3. Santa Claus: Kirk reveals the factual of account of "St.Nicholaus of Myra" he shows the story of how Nicholaus punched out Arius.( I am not certain if this story has a little legend in it.  But I know this is possibly a factual story.)  However, though I am proudly trinitarian I do not hold to the Nicene Creed for it's false teaching of baptismal regeneration and others.   The Nicene Creed was not simply theology.  This creed was used as a tool to shed blood and became part of the catholic tradition of using theology for tyranny.  Santa was far from the last Bishop to use such meetings for physical violence against other "ministers".
The modern imagery and tales of Santa Claus carry with it aspects of pagan mythology.  Such as the sleigh riding Norse god "Odin".    

   Odin                 St. Nicholaus of Myra
When people celebrate Santa Claus are they really acknowledge a bishop as their role model or participating in religious worship of a spirit? teaching there children to offer the spirit, cookies.
   However, Kirk does not deal with what the Santa stories have become.  Roman and eastern orthodox Catholic tradition has this man canonized as a Saint in which case  people around the world pray to him much like Mary. 
Deuteronomy 4:16 lest ye corrupt yourselves and make you a graven image: the similitude of any figure, the likeness of male or female,"
Acts 10: 25 And as Peter was coming in, Cornelius met him and fell down at his feet and worshiped him.
26 But Peter took him up, saying, “Stand up; I myself also am a man.”
Revelation 19:10 " 10 And I fell at his feet to worship him. But he said unto me, “See that thou do it not! I am thy fellow servant and one of thy brethren, who hold to the testimony of Jesus. Worship God! For the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.”"
1 john 5: 21 Little children, keep yourselves from idols. Amen.

So kirk encourages his brother-in-law to repent of not celebrating Christmas.   So He leaps into the Christmas presents and after a heart felt apology as opposed to kissing his wife.  Breaks it down into a hip hop dance-a-thon where kirk Cameron does the worm one of the dancers shows why her sweater is not appropriate for this dance at church, and even the white-boy brother can now "kick it".
Don't worry I believe in dancing before the Lord!

Psalm 149:3       21st Century King James Version (KJ21)
Let them praise His name in the dance; let them sing praises unto Him with the timbrel and harp."
    I only wish they could come close to bringing my swag.
   
The Bible also teaches religious liberty in our worship.
Romans 14:Who art thou who judgest another man’s servant? To his own master he standeth or falleth; yea, he shall be held up, for God is able to make him stand.
One man esteemeth one day above another; another esteemeth every day alike. Let every man be fully persuaded in his own mind.


 Here is  the problem though we should as christians use our liberty in a wise and defensive manner.  Not using it as an occaision to sin.   Kirk is ignoring the fact that there is an unbiblical and sinful way of approaching Christmas and some people will be weak in the faith.
1 Corinthians 9:4Concerning therefore the eating of those things that are offered in sacrifice unto idols, we know that an idol is nothing in the world, and that there is no other God but One.
For though there be what are called “gods,” whether in heaven or on earth (as there are many “gods” and many “lords”),
yet to us there is but one God, the Father, from whom are all things, and we in Him, and one Lord Jesus Christ by whom are all things, and we by Him.
However, there is not in every man that knowledge; for some, with conscience of the idol until this hour, eat it as a thing offered unto an idol, and their conscience, being weak, is defiled."
"
10 For if any man see thee, who hast knowledge, sitting at meat in the idol’s temple, shall not the conscience of him who is weak be emboldened to eat those things which are offered to idols,
11 and through thy knowledge shall the weak brother perish, for whom Christ died?
12 For when ye sin so against the brethren and wound their weak conscience, ye sin against Christ.
13 Therefore, if meat make my brother to offend, I will eat no flesh while the world standeth, lest I make my brother to offend." 

  At the end of the day, this movie seems to be used as a way of protecting the Christmas industry.  Which I can understand why Christians would not want to loose hold of of as their influence in society dwindles.  And if that's the way you make a living, more power to you!  But if you product is not bringing people closer to God then it is a good thing if they dump the product.  This is what happens when sinners repent of idolatry.
Acts 19:17 And this became known to all the Jews and Greeks also dwelling in Ephesus, and fear fell on them all, and the name of the Lord Jesus was magnified.
18 And many who believed came, and confessed, and showed their deeds.
19 Many of those also who used occult arts brought their books together and burned them before all men; and they counted up the price of them, and found it to be fifty thousand pieces of silver.
20 So the Word of God grew mightily and prevailed."
Of course this would lead to Paul's arrest! :(  
 But God would use it for his glory :)

Christmas has been historically used for evil and also historically used for Good.   Follow the convictions of the Holy Ghost and you will get out of Christmas the most ;)

 Three Wise Men

Sunday, October 26, 2014

A scientific exposition of a literal interpretation of genesis 1-2:7

The purpose of this piece will not to include various theories of interpretation.  It will simply be the scientific implications of a literal interpretation of the text. 

http://christiananswers.net/q-eden/creationdays2-1.jpg

Day 1
In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. And God said, Let there be light: and there was light. And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness. And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day."

"In the beginning"  as soon as time began. Time does not start until existing things move.
"God" Elohim.  A simple description of God would be "He which is greater than everything which is possible to conceive."
God is not simply the first person.  First, because Elohim being plural implies a plural person.  Which we understand as to be explained in the revelation of the trinity.  But more importantly  God is the original substance.
1 timothy 6:16 who only hath immortality, dwelling in the light which no man can approach unto; whom no man hath seen, nor can see: to whom be honour and power everlasting. Amen."
Typically when you here people discuss creation "ex nihilo" "out of nothing" we envision some sort of nothing substance and God as a spirit dwelling in nothing.  This is illogical.  nothing is not a thing.  It does not exist, hence it is nothing.  So the only substance to be found is the Godhead or divinity of God.  Instead of the irrational proposition of space/time moving through nothing.  We understand that all things are within the Godhead and God is stretching them forth.  God is creating from nothing in the since that there was nothing that God used.
"created the heaven and the earth"
Here we see that there are now 2 created substances.  They are not transcendent but limited substances.  Heaven and Earth.
now heaven and earth are not in the present state.   In fact the earth which we usually associated with solidity is formless and void.
What of the heaven?
with hints from the rest of the chapter, this is neither the sky nor our current understanding of the cosmos.  This would be the substance articulated by the Greeks and early scientists known as the ether.
"According to ancient and medieval science, aether (Greek: αἰθήρ aithēr[1]), also spelled æther or ether, also called quintessence, is the material that fills the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere. The concept of aether was used in several theories to explain several natural phenomena, such as the traveling of light and gravity." wikipedia
What is the earth?
The Earth in this context is not exclusively soil.  It is formless and void.  The earth simply is matter; both solid and liquid.
"darkness was upon the face of the deep."  So the original color of the substance "deep" is dark or black.
"And God said,"  Here we see God using the Word as a vehicle for creation.
psalm 33:By the word of the Lord were the heavens made;
and all the host of them by the breath of his mouth.
He gathereth the waters of the sea together as an heap:
he layeth up the depth in storehouses.
Let all the earth fear the Lord:
let all the inhabitants of the world stand in awe of him.
For he spake, and it was done;
he commanded, and it stood fast.
Isaiah 55:11 "so shall my word be that goeth forth out of my mouth:
it shall not return unto me void,
but it shall accomplish that which I please,
and it shall prosper in the thing whereto I sent it."
john 1: In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made. In him was life; and the life was the light of men. And the light shineth in darkness; and the darkness comprehended it not."
  As we observe in the New Testament, the Word(logos) is in fact the Divinity of Christ operating.
It should also be noted that the creative force of the Logos is miraculous.  He is not subject to the laws of nature since nature is being created under Him.
"Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters"  The Spirit Of God or as future revelation reveals "Holy Spirit"  is an immanent manifestation of God inside space and time.
 "Let there be light"  this was not star or sunlight since they did not exist.  This was light energy.  This energetic substance of light filled the aether.  The observable universe is filled with the substance known as plasma.
 
"Plasma (from Greek πλάσμα, "anything formed"[1]), according to natural science, is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and gas). When air or gas is ionized, plasma forms with conductive properties similar to those of metals. Plasma is the most abundant form of matter in the Universe, because most stars are in a plasma state.[2][3]
Plasma comprises the major state of matter of the Sun. Heating a gas may ionize its molecules or atoms (reducing or increasing the number of electrons in them), thus turning it into a plasma, which contains charged particles: positive ions and negative electrons or ions.[4] Ionization can be induced by other means, such as a strong electromagnetic field applied with a laser or microwave generator, and is accompanied by the dissociation of molecular bonds, if present.[5] Plasma can also be created by the application of an electric field on a gas, where the underlying process is the Townsend avalanche.
The presence of a non-negligible number of charge carriers makes the plasma electrically conductive so that it responds strongly to electromagnetic fields. Plasma, therefore, has properties quite unlike those of solids, liquids, or gases and is considered a distinct state of matter. Like gas, plasma does not have a definite shape or a definite volume unless enclosed in a container; unlike gas, under the influence of a magnetic field, it may form structures such as filaments, beams and double layers. Some common plasmas are found in stars and neon signs. In the universe, plasma is the most common state of matter for ordinary matter, most of which is in the rarefied intergalactic plasma (particularly intracluster medium) and in stars. Much of the understanding of plasmas has come from the pursuit of controlled nuclear fusion and fusion power, for which plasma physics provides the scientific basis."wikipedia plasma
"God saw the light, that it was good".  This energetic plasma light had many dimensions.  This energy likely holds the spiritual realm within it.  After all, the realms of hades and spirits are created but immaterial.  This and the fact that occult fascination has always focused on electro-magnetic energy.  At this point the spiritual realm is determined good.  Once again, the moral implications point to the spiritual nature.
"God divided the light from the darkness"  As this energy in the plasma would manifest it would travel.  where ever it would light up there would be no darkness.  Where ever the light had left, there would be darkness.
"God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night."
Day is a period of time.  24 hours across the earth.  So the plasmatic light would race from once side of the aetheral heaven to the other. Evening with one half revolution; morning the second half.  So the first day was when the plasmatic light raced from one side of the universe to the other.  This revolution of the universe would operate as such for the first 3 days until interrupted by the creation of the sun moon and stars.



 Day 2

And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters. And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so. And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day."
"Firmament"  meaning an expanse.   The liquid body below is mixed in solid matter.  The waters above are an unknown quantity perhaps also in a mix of solids, liquids and gases.  In the vast expanse they are frozen when dark and burning when light.  Further revelation reveals that a canopy of these waters is protecting earth from the celestial realm which would be obviously radioactive.
Job 37:18 Hast thou with him spread out the sky, which is strong,
and as a molten looking glass?"
"and called the firmament heaven"  here we have a singular heaven which is the firmament.  Yet later in the text heaven will become plural.  So as shown in genesis one we have an ethereal heaven and and atmospheric firmament heaven.  Separated by a strong canopy.
 

Day3
And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so. 10 And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good. 11 And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And the evening and the morning were the third day."
Map of the world isolated on blue - stock vector
  The waters gather into the seas and the earth emerges.  This is specifically focused upon the "dry" earth as the continents are hoisted out of the sea. While the sea sinks downward. It should be notticed that All the oceans connect in "one place".  The earth brings forth plant life.  Plants are not seen as living like animals and people due to their lack of motion and spirit.  Here the plant is seen as emerging from the earth instead of evolving from the water.It is important that the canopy was erected first to protect plant-life from the cosmic radiation.


Day 4
14 And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years: 15 and let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so. 16 And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also. 17 And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth, 18 and to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good. 19 And the evening and the morning were the fourth day."
 "let there be lights"  the stars are not created in a sequence, they are created simultaneously.  The plasma-tic radiation is now organizing itself into the stars.  These stars are all electrically connected as put forth by plasma cosmologists.   They are connected much like and orchard of grapes or the lights of a Christmas tree.
They are intelligently designed to give us the ability to detect time and record history.Through the creation of the sun and moon we also see the continuation of the day cycle smoothly transition to our current cycle.  The sun illuminates(rules) our earthly atmosphere while the moon illuminates(rules) our celestial atmosphere.
psalms 148: Praise ye him, sun and moon:
praise him, all ye stars of light.
Praise him, ye heavens of heavens,
and ye waters that be above the heavens."
  So now this further revelation reveals to us that the etheral heaven is incase in a water canopy.  Probably a frozen gas.
  This further revelation shows that there is a water canopy encasing the universe(heavens).  Most likely an encasing of gas. The lights in the firmament is referring to the Aether expanse of the universe which was filled with electromagnetic plasma From here God has set forth the stars and planets and other cosmic bodies.

Day 5
20 And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven. 21 And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good. 22 And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth. 23 And the evening and the morning were the fifth day."
 
"the waters bring forth" this admits to the chemical fact that animals and people are mostly liquids in nature.  "the moving creature that hath life" points us to the fact that life or spirit is in the moving lifeforms.  "fowl" or birds are created.  It is interesting to note that the stars being organized would imply a certain order to the earth's electromagnetic field would this be done in order to help birds navigate their migration patterns?  I have seen studies on Monarch butterflies that implies such an adaptation. Obviously the trees were in place the previous day for the fowls to land.  Though their divine origin does not have them starting from the land,  though it will be breeding there.  "Whales"  Would not be limited to whale mammals, but include other great fish as well. "every living creature that moveth"  is a good generalization, for all the aquatic life. "after their kind".  We see a general order that stays in place.  their

Day 6
24 And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so. 25 And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good.
26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. 27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them. 28 And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.
29 And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat. 30 And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so. 31 And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day."
 
"Let the earth bring forth" here would be referring to land animals.  Cattle is probably limited to mammals unless another animal can fulfill the grazing functions of cattle. "creeping thing" would be a reference to all invertebrates and insects. The "beast of the earth" would be left over mammals and reptiles."after his kind" Sets limits upon speciation.  This is in opposition to the pagan and evolutionary worldviews.  Yet the kinds have never been observed to be bred into other kinds.
 Man is the only representation of God in creation. Being after the likeness of the Elohim, mankind is granted dominion over creation.  Man is the focal point of creation,  man would have no Glory if God had not made creation for man to have dominion over. "and behold it was good"  The creation week created life, there was no death but a continuation of more and more life.

Day 7
Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them. And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made. And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it he had rested from all his work which God created and made."
"finished"  Creation was a specific time and act.  This was not some bizarre allegory for the ongoing process of life.  It happened once and God achieved the goals of it's design.  Yes, there will be alterations in the future. But not in terms of God creating the universe.  There may be a creative miracle here and there,(christ turning water into wine), but they will be few and far between."from all his work" God was not resting as if he had run out of power. By resting He refrained his work.  The universe was created separate from God.  The substance of God is "holy" or set apart from creation.

"4 These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens, and every plant of the field before it was in the earth, and every herb of the field before it grew: for the Lord God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground. But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground."  
This is the written record of creation which Jehovah had provided to Adam. "Had not caused it to rain upon the earth" the rain cycle would not start until after the flood.  The earth was watered internally through a system of springs.  The was due to the earlier erection of the ice canopy.

On man
And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul."
 
Man is created independently from the creatures of the earth.  The breath of life is the insertion of "spirit into man from God.  It should be noted that the "earth bring forth" and "waters bring forth" is due to the fact that God is an invisible spirit and so it appears as if the earth and waters were bringing forth the creatures as He was creating them.
So as a result of the combnation body and spirit we have the identity of the "living soul", this is the tricotomy of man. (body, soul spirit). 
 
  This is the initial reason we(mankind) know to Glorify God.

Saturday, September 27, 2014

The purpose of general revelation



Psalm19:1 The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament sheweth his handywork.
Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night sheweth knowledge.
There is no speech nor language, where their voice is not heard.
Their line is gone out through all the earth, and their words to the end of the world.
In them hath he set a tabernacle for the sun,
which is as a bridegroom coming out of his chamber, and rejoiceth as a strong man to run a race.
His going forth is from the end of the heaven, and his circuit unto the ends of it:
and there is nothing hid from the heat thereof.


Thomas Aquinas on General revelation
  Is it ironic that the same scripture which teaches a general revelation appears to teach that sun circles the earth.  The popular catholic theologian who popularized the notion of general revelation also held to geo-centrism.  But first, what is the doctrine of general revelation?

Revelation

"Thomas believed that truth is known through reason (natural revelation) and faith (supernatural revelation). Supernatural revelation has its origin in the inspiration of the Holy Spirit and is made available through the teaching of the prophets, summed up in Holy Scripture, and transmitted by the Magisterium, the sum of which is called "Tradition". Natural revelation is the truth available to all people through their human nature; certain truths all men can attain from correct human reasoning. For example, he felt this applied to rational ways to know the existence of God.
Though one may deduce the existence of God and his Attributes (One, Truth, Good, Power, Knowledge) through reason, certain specifics may be known only through special revelation (such as the Trinity). In Thomas's view, special revelation is equivalent to the revelation of God in Jesus Christ. The major theological components of Christianity, such as the Trinity and the Incarnation, are revealed in the teachings of the Church and the Scriptures and may not otherwise be deduced.
Supernatural revelation (faith) and natural revelation (reason) are complementary rather than contradictory in nature, for they pertain to the same unity: truth."https://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Thomas_Aquinas.html
Here, as Princeton summarizes Aquinas's view of general revelation we see that general revelation is universal.  Therefore God has given

Natural theology
“The existence of God and other like truths about God, which can be known by natural reason, are not articles of faith, but are preambles to the articles; for faith presupposes natural knowledge, even as grace presupposes nature and perfection the perfectible.” (Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, Article 2, Reply to objection 1.)"

  Now many self-professed Christians have over the years clung to Aquinas doctrine of general revelation in order to claim their theological right to hold onto the Secular scientific concepts of the Big bang theory and evolution.  However does this match Aquinas purpose for the doctrine of general revelation?

Progressive Old earth Creationist Hugh Ross has often referred to nature as the "67th book of the Bible".
 Ross, H.N., Creation and Time, Navpress, Colorado Springs, 1994 (page 56)
Which gives the implication that natural revelation adds revelation to scripture.



Thomas Aquinas on creation
"We must firmly maintain that the world has not always existed: catholic faith teaches it and no scientific proof can succeed in proving the opposite.... But when we talk of the bringing into existence of the whole universe, there is no other created thing which can be used to explain why the universe is as it is;and since it's arrangements aren't determined by the power available to God-which is infinite....we must say they depend simply on its maker's will."
"If you want to know why the heavens are so big and not bigger, the only answer is that he who made it wanted it that size.... it won't help us to say that such and such is the size appropriate to the nature of heavens or heavenly bodies in the way every solid thing has a size fixed by nature, for just as God's power isn't limited to this size rather than that, so it isn't limited to a nature requiring this size rather than one requiring that."  Aquinas Selected philosophical writings pg 265-66 "Did creation occur in time?" Oxford Worlds Classics
Aquinas viewed God's creation as not limited.  Today, even Christians make naturalistic assumptions about the universe.  We assume that the laws of science are transcendent as if they were here before God. But if God is all powerful then He is all powerful.  The laws of physics only apply if God intends them to apply.  This contradicts many modern Thomist's whom assume that physics are fixed in such an authoritative manner that they can correct the revelation of scripture.



"It should be noted that these arguments of Aristotle are directed against the position that posits a world produced by generation and indestructible either of its very nature or through the will of God. But according to the Catholic faith, we hold that it began to be, not through a process of generation as from nature, but by flowing from a first principle whose power was not bound to give it existence in infinite time but as it willed, after previous non-existence, in order to manifest the excellence of its power over the totality of being, namely, that the totality of being depends entirely on it and its power is not confined or determined to the production of some given being." (Thomas Aquinas, 'On the Heavens, Book I, Lecture 29, 286.)
  Here Thomas Aquinas does not allow Aristotelian logic to become the 67th book of the Bible.  It is obvious that was never argued to have a superior place or even an equal footing with scripture.

Thomas Aquinas on Geo-centricity

  Here Thomas Aquinas argues his cosmology not based upon the revelation of God but upon the universal power of Reason.
  • “Then at [268] he [The Philosopher, Aristotle] shows that even the lower heavenly bodies are spherical. And he says that from the fact that the first body is spherical, it follows that the next body "continuous" to it, i.e., immediately joined to it, is spherical: for that body which is "continuous" to, i.e., immediately joined to, the spherical body, must itself be spherical. Now this is true if the first body is spherical not only on its convex, but also on its concave, side. Since the very same nature of first body is in both these sides, it must have the same figure on both sides.
  • “The same argument holds for the other bodies which are in the center of these and contained by them, namely, they too have to be spherical. For those bodies that are contained and touched by the body that is spherical according to its convex side must also be spherical on their convex side, and consequently spherical according to their concave side, if they are of one nature. Since, therefore, the spheres of the lower planets touch the higher sphere, it follows that the whole of "what is carried," i.e., the whole body which is circularly moved, has a spherical shape, for all those bodies of the heavenly spheres mutually touch and are "continuous," i.e., in immediate contact one with the other. And there is no intermediate body that fills up voids between spheres, as some say - for it would follow that those bodies would be idle, since they would not have a circular motion.”
  • (Thomas Aquinas, 'On the Heavens,' Book II, Lecture 5, 352 and 353.).

Now, although  Aquinas was not here recorded giving this doctrine based upon biblical revelation.  Many of the earlier Church teachers followed this interpretation of scripture.



Ambrose: Worthy surely was he to stand forth as a man who might stay the course of the river, and who might say: "Sun, stand still," and delay the night and lengthen the day, as though to witness his victory. Why? a blessing denied to Moses--he alone was chosen to lead the people into the promised land. A man he was, great in the wonders he wrought by faith, great in his triumphs. The works of Moses were of a higher type, his brought greater success. Either of these then aided by divine grace rose above all human standing. The one ruled the sea, the other heaven. (Duties of the Clergy, Bk II, Ch XX, 99)
Ambrose: But they say that the sun can be said to be alone, because there is no second sun. But the sun himself has many things in common with the stars, for he travels across the heavens, he is of that ethereal and heavenly substance, he is a creature, and is reckoned amongst all the works of God. He serves God in union with all, blesses Him with all, praises Him with all. Therefore he cannot accurately be said to be alone, for he is not set apart from the rest.(Exposition of the Christian Faith, Bk V, Ch II)
Anatolius of Alexandria: Eudemus relates in his Astrologies that Enopides found out the circle of the zodiac and the cycle "of the great year. And Thales discovered the eclipse of the sun and its period in the tropics in its constant inequality. And Anaximander discovered that the earth is poised in space, and moves round the axis of the universe. And Anaximenes discovered that the moon has her light from the sun, and found out also the way in which she suffers eclipse. And the rest of the mathematicians have also made additions to these discoveries. We may instance the facts--that the fixed stars move round the axis passing through the poles, while the planets remove from each other round the perpendicular axis of the zodiac; and that the axis of the fixed stars and the planets is the side of a pente-decagon with four-and-twenty parts. (XVII)
Aphrahat: For the sun in twelve hours circles round, from the east unto the west; and when he has accomplished his course, his light is hidden in the night-time, and the night is not disturbed by his power. And in the hours of the night the sun turns round in his rapid course, and turning round begins to run in his accustomed path. (Demonstrations, 24).
Archeleus: When the light had been diffused everywhere, God began to constitute the universe, and commenced with the heaven and the earth; in which process this issue appeared, to wit, that the midst, which is the locality of earth covered with shadow, as a consequence of the interpositions of the creatures which were called into being, was found to be obscure, in such wise that circumstances required light to be introduced into that place, which was thus situated in the midst. (Disputation with Manes, 22).
Arnobius: The moon, the sun, the earth, the ether, the stars, are members and parts of the world; but if they are parts and members, they are certainly not themselves living creatures (Arnobius Against the Heathen, Book 3, 350)
Athanasius: but the earth is not supported upon itself, but is set upon the realm of the waters, while this again is kept in its place, being bound fast at the center of the universe. (Against the Heathen, Book I, Part I)
Athanasius: For who that sees the circle of heaven and the course of the sun and the moon, and the positions and movements of the other stars, as they take place in opposite and different directions, while yet in their difference all with one accord observe a consistent order, can resist the conclusion that these are not ordered by themselves, but have a maker distinct from themselves who orders them? or who that sees the sun rising by day and the moon shining by night, and waning and waxing without variation exactly according to the same number of days, and some of the stars running their courses and with orbits various and manifold, while others move without wandering, can fail to perceive that they certainly have a creator to guide them? (Against the Heathen, Bk 1, Part III, 35)
 For by a nod and by the power of the Divine Word of the Father that governs and presides over all, the heaven revolves, the stars move, the sun shines, the moon goes her circuit, and the air receives the sun's light and the aether his heat, and the winds blow: the mountains are reared on high, the sea is rough with waves, and the living things in it grow the earth abides fixed...” (Against the Heathen, Bk 1, Part III, 44)
Athenagoras: to Him is for us to know who stretched out and vaulted the heavens, and fixed the earth in its place like a center (Why the Christians do not Offer Sacrifices, Ch XIII)
Augustine: Let not the philosophers, then, think to upset our faith with arguments from the weight of bodies; for I don't care to inquire why they cannot believe an earthly body can be in heaven, while the whole earth is suspended on nothing. For perhaps the world keeps its central place by the same law that attracts to its center all heavy bodies. (City of God, Bk XIII, Ch 18)
Augustine: For an eclipse of the sun had also happened; and this was attributed to the divine power of Romulus by the ignorant multitude, who did not know that it was brought about by the fixed laws of the sun's course (City of God, Bk III, Ch 15)
Augustine: This he said either of those things of which he had just been speaking--the succession of generations, the orbit of the sun, the course of rivers,--or else of all kinds of creatures. that are born and die. (City of God, Bk XII, Ch 13).
Augustine: What is there so arranged by the Author of the nature of heaven and earth as the exactly ordered course of the stars? What is there established by laws so sure and inflexible? And yet, when it pleased Him who with sovereignty and supreme power regulates all He has created, a star conspicuous among the rest by its size and splendor changed its color, size, form, and, most wonderful of all, the order and law of its course! Certainly that phenomenon disturbed the canons of the astronomers, if there were any then, by which they tabulate, as by unerring computation, the past and future movements of the stars, so as to take upon them to affirm that this which happened to the morning star (Venus) never happened before nor since. But we read in the divine books that even the sun itself stood still when a holy man, Joshua the son of Nun, had begged this from God until victory should finish the battle he had begun; and that it even went back, that the promise of fifteen years added to the life of king Hezekiah might be sealed by this additional prodigy. But these miracles, which were vouchsafed to the merits of holy men, even when our adversaries believe them, they attribute to magical arts; so Virgil, in the lines I quoted above, ascribes to magic the power to "Turn rivers backward to their source, And make the stars forget their course." (City of God, Book XXI, Ch 8).
Augustine: Who else save Joshua the son of Nun divided the stream of the Jordan for the people to pass over, and by the utterance of a prayer to God bridled and stopped the revolving sun? Who save Samson ever quenched his thirst with water flowing forth from the jawbone of a dead ass? Who save Elias was carried aloft in a chariot of fire? (Tractates, XCI, Ch XV, 24-25, 2).
Augustine:  I desire to know the power and nature of time, by which we measure the motions of bodies, and say (for example) that this motion is twice as long as that. For, I ask, since "day" declares not the stay only of the sun upon the earth, according to which day is one thing, night another, but also its entire circuit from east even to east, according to which we say, "So many days have passed" (the nights being included when we say "so many days," and their spaces not counted apart), since, then, the day is finished by the motion of the sun, and by his circuit from east to east, I ask, whether the motion itself is the day, or the period in which that motion is completed, or both? For if the first be the day, then would there be a day although the sun should finish that course in so small a space of time as an hour. If the second, then that would not be a day if from one sunrise to another there were but so short a period as an hour, but the sun must go round four-and-twenty times to complete a day. If both, neither could that be called a day if the sun should run his entire round in the space of an hour; nor that, if, while the sun stood still, so much time should pass as the sun is accustomed to accomplish his whole course in from morning to morning. I shall not therefore now ask, what that is which is called day, but what time is, by which we, measuring the circuit of the sun, should say that it was accomplished in half the space of time it was wont, if it had been completed in so small a space as twelve hours; and comparing both times, we should call that single, this double time, although the sun should run his course from east to east sometimes in that single, sometimes in that double time. Let no man then tell me that the motions of the heavenly bodies are times, because, when at the prayer of one the sun stood still in order that he might achieve his victorious battle, the sun stood still, but time went on. For in such space of time as was sufficient was that battle fought and ended. I see that time, then, is a certain extension. But do I see it, or do I seem to see it? Thou, O Light and Truth, wilt show me. (Confessions, Bk XI, Ch XXIII, 30)
Basil: There are inquirers into nature who with a great display of words give reasons for the immobility of the earth...It is not, they go on, without reason or by chance that the earth occupies the center of the universe...Do not then be surprised that the world never falls: it occupies the center of the universe, its natural place. By necessity it is obliged to remain in its place, unless a movement contrary to nature should displace it. If there is anything in this system which might appear probable to you, keep your admiration for the source of such perfect order, for the wisdom of God. Grand phenomena do not strike us the less when we have discovered something of their wonderful mechanism. Is it otherwise here? At all events let us prefer the simplicity of faith to the demonstrations of reason. (Nine Homilies on the Hexameron, 10)
Basil: If the sun, subject to corruption, is so beautiful, so grand.  so rapid in its move-meat, so invariable in its course; if its grandeur is in such perfect harmony with and due proportion to the universe: if, by the beauty of its nature, it shines like a brilliant eye in the middle of creation; if finally, one cannot tire of contemplating it, what will be the beauty of the Sun of Righteousness? (Homilies, 6)
Basil: From thence the sun, returning to the summer solstice, in the direction of the North, gives us the longest days.  And, as it travels farther in the air, it burns that which is over our heads, dries up the earth, ripens the grains and hastens the maturity of the fruits of the trees. (Homilies, 6, 8).
Basil: It will not lead me to give less importance to the creation of the universe, that the servant of God, Moses, is silent as to shapes; he has not said that the earth is a hundred and eighty thousand furlongs in circumference; he has not measured into what extent of air its shadow projects itself whilst the sun revolves around it, nor stated how this shadow, casting itself upon the moon, produces eclipses. (Homilies, IX).
Basil: In the midst of the covering and veil, where the priests were allowed to enter, was situated the altar of incense, the symbol of the earth placed in the middle of this universe; and from  it came the fumes of incense. (The Mystic Meaning of the Tabernacle, Bk V, Ch VI; Clement of Rome, Stromata, Bk V)
Basil: Like tops, which after the first impulse, continue their evolutions, turning upon themselves when once fixed in their centre; thus nature, receiving the impulse of this first command, follows without interruption the course of ages, until the consummation of all things. (Homilies, V, 10)
John Cassian: He was a man who, after the close of his life had been decreed and the day of his death determined by the Lord's sentence, prevailed by a single prayer to extend the limits set to his life by fifteen years, the sun returning by ten steps, on which it had already shone in its course towards its setting, and by its return dispersing those lines which the shadow that followed its course had already marked, and by this giving two days in one to the whole world, by a stupendous miracle contrary to the fixed laws of nature. Yet after signs so great and so incredible, after such immense proofs of his goodness, hear the Scripture tell how he was destroyed by his very successes. (Twelve Books on the Institutes, Bk XI, Ch X).
Chrysostom: Dost thou not see how God is daily blasphemed and mocked by believers and unbelievers, both in word and in deed? What then? Has He for this extinguished the sun? or stayed the course of the moon? Has He crushed the heavens and uprooted the earth? Has He dried up the sea? Has He shut up the fountains of waters? or confounded the air? Nay, on the contrary, He makes His sun to rise, His rain to descend, gives the fruits of the earth in their seasons, and thus supplies yearly nourishment to the blasphemers, to the insensible, to the polluted, to persecutors; not for one day or two, but for their whole life. Imitate Him then, emulate Him as far as human powers admit. Can thou not make the sun arise? (Homilies on First Timothy, Homily VI)
Chrysostom: And what took place at a later period were few and at intervals; for example, when the sun stood still in its course, and started back in the opposite direction. And this one may see to have occurred in our case also. For so even in our generation, in the instance of him who surpassed all in ungodliness, I mean Julian, many strange things happened. Thus when the Jews were attempting to raise up again the temple at Jerusalem, fire burst out from the foundations, and utterly hindered them all. (Homilies on Matthew, Homily IV)
Chrysostom: And again, David saith of the sun, that "he is as a bridegroom coming out of his chamber, and rejoiceth as a giant to run his course." Seest thou how he places before thee the beauty of this star, and its greatness? For even as a bridegroom when he appears from some stately chamber, so the sun sends forth his rays under the East; and adorning the heaven as it were with a saffron-colored veil, and making the clouds like roses, and running unimpeded all the day; he meets no obstacle to interrupt his course. Beholdest thou, then, his beauty? (Homilies to Antioch, Homily X)
Chrysostom: For He not only made it, but provided also that when it was made, it should carry on its operations; not permitting it to be all immoveable, nor commanding it to be all in a state of motion. The heaven, for instance, hath remained immoveable, according as the prophet says, "He placed the heaven as a vault, and stretched it out as a tent over the earth." But, on the other hand, the sun with the rest of the stars, runs on his course through every day. And again, the earth is fixed, but the waters are continually in motion; and not the waters only, but the clouds, and the frequent and successive showers, which return at their proper season. (Homilies to Antioch, Homily XII)
Chrysostom: [Speaking of the end of the world]: For the heaven shall be disturbed and the earth shall be shaken from its foundations by reason of the fury of the wrath of the Lord of Sabaoth, in the day when His wrath shall come upon us." And again "windows" he saith "shall be opened from the Heaven, and the foundations of the earth shall be shaken the earth shall be mightily confounded, the earth shall be bent low, it shall be perplexed with great perplexity, the earth shall stagger grievously like the drunkard and the reveller; the earth shall shake as a hut, it shall fall and not be able to rise up again: for iniquity has waxed mighty therein. And God shall set His hand upon the host of the Heaven in the height in that day, and upon the kingdoms of the earth, and He shall gather together the congregation thereof into a prison, and shall shut them up in a stronghold." And Malachi speaking concordantly with these said" Behold the Lord almighty cometh, and who shall abide the day of His coming or who shall stand when He appeareth? for He cometh like a refiner's fire, and like fullers soap: and He shall sit refining and purifying as it were silver, and as it were gold." (Letters to Theodor, Letter I, 12)
Chrysostom: Consider of how great value is the righteous man. Joshua the son of Nun said, "Let the sun stand still at Gibeon, the moon at the valley of Elom" (Josh. x. 12), and it was so. Let then the whole world come, or rather two or three, or four, or ten, or twenty worlds, and let them say and do this; yet shall they not be able. But the friend of God commanded the creatures of his Friend, or rather he besought his Friend, and the servants yielded, and he below gave command to those above. Seest thou that these things are for service fulfilling their appointed course?
This was greater than the [miracles] of Moses. Why (I ask)? Because it is not a like thing to command the sea and the heavenly [bodies]. For that indeed was also a great thing, yea very great, nevertheless it was not at all equal [to the other]. Why was this? The name of Joshua [JESUS], was a type. For this reason then, and because of the very name, the creation reverenced him. What then! Was no other person called Jesus? [Yes]; but this man was on this account so called in type; for he used to be called Hoshea. Therefore the name was changed: for it was a prediction and a prophecy. He brought in the people into the promised land, as JESUS [does] into heaven; not the Law; since neither did Moses [bring them in], but remained without. (Homily on the Epistle to the Hebrews, Homily VIII)
Chrysostom: Therefore it was, that Joshua, the son of Nave, said, "Let the sun stand still in Gibeon, and the moon over against the valley of Ajalon.' And again the prophet Isaiah made the sun to retrace his steps, under the reign of Hezekiah; and Moses gave orders to the air, and the sea, the earth, and the rocks. Elisha changed the nature of the waters; the Three Children triumphed over the fire. Thou seest how God hath provided for us on either hand; leading us by the beauty of the elements to the knowledge of His divinity; and, by their feebleness, not permitting us to lapse into the worship of them. (Homily to Antioch, Homily X)
Clement of Rome: The sun and moon, with the companies of the stars, roll on in harmony according to His command, within their prescribed limits, and without any deviation. (First Epistle to the Corinthians, Ch XX).
Clement of Rome: the Creator, long-suffering, merciful, the sustainer, the benefactor, ordaining love of men, counselling purity, immortal and making immortal, incomparable, dwelling in the souls of the good, that cannot be contained and yet is contained, who has fixed the great world as a centre in space, who has spread out the heavens and solidified the earth (Homily II, Ch XLV)
Clement of Rome: For it is manifest even to the unbelieving and unskilful, that the course of the sun, which is useful and necessary to the world, and which is assigned by providence, is always kept orderly; but the courses of the moon, in comparison of the course of the sun, seem to the unskilful to be inordinate and unsettled in her waxings and wanings. For the sun moves in fixed and orderly periods: for from him are hours, from him the day when he rises, from him also the night when he sets; from him months  and years are reckoned, from him the variations of seasons are produced; while, rising to the  higher regions, he tempers the spring; but when he reaches the top of the heaven, he kindles the summer's heats: again, sinking, he produces the temper of autumn; and when he returns to his lowest circle, he bequeaths to us the rigour of winter's cold from the icy binding of heaven. (Pseudo-Clementine, Bk VIII, Ch XLV)
Cyril of Jerusalem: And he, who could not hope to live because of the prophetic sentence, had fifteen years added to his life, and for the sign the sun ran backward in his course Well then, for Ezekias' sake the sun turned back but for Christ the sun was eclipsed, not retracing his steps, but suffering eclipse, and therefore shewing the difference between them, I mean between Ezekias and Jesus. (Catechetical Lectures, II, 15)
Cyril of Jerusalem: the earth, which bears the same proportion to the heaven as the center to the whole circumference of a wheel, for the earth is no more than this in comparison with the heaven: consider then that this first heaven which is seen is less than the second, and the second than the third, for so far Scripture has named them...” (Catechetical Lectures, VI, 3)
Ephraim the Syrian: The sun in his course teaches thee that thou rest from labour. (On Admonition and Repentance)
Eusebius: The vast expanse of heaven, like an azure veil is interposed between those without, and those who inhabit his royal mansions: while round this expanse the sun and moon, with the rest of the heavenly luminaries (like torch- bearers around the entrance of the imperial palace), perform, in honor of their sovereign, their appointed courses; holding forth, at the word of his command, an ever-burning light to those whose lot is cast in the darker regions without the pale of heaven. (Oration of Constantine, Ch 1).
Eusebius: to whom he has permitted the contemplation of celestial objects, and revealed the course and changes of the sun and moon, and the periods of the planets and fixed stars. (Oration of Constantine, Ch VI).
Eusebius: Even so one and the same impression of the solar rays illumines the air at once, gives light to the eyes, warmth to the touch, fertility to the earth, and growth to plants. The same luminary constitutes the course of time, governs the motions of the stars, performs the circuit of the heavens, imparts beauty to the earth, and displays the power of God to all: and all this he performs by the sole and unaided force of his own nature.(Oration of Constantine, Ch XII)
Gregory Nanzianzus: But who gave him motion at first? And what is it which ever moves him in his circuit, though in his nature stable and immovable, truly unwearied, and the giver and sustainer of life, and all the rest of the titles which the poets justly sing of him, and never resting in his course or his benefits? How comes he to be the creator of day when above the earth, and of night when below it? or whatever may be the right expression when one contemplates the sun? (Orations, Oration XXVIII, XXX)
Gregory Nanzianzus: The sun is extolled by David for its beauty, its greatness, its swift course, and its power, splendid as a bridegroom, majestic as a giant; while, from the extent of its circuit, it has such power that it equally sheds its light from one end of heaven to the other, and the heat thereof is in no wise lessened by distance. (Funeral Orations for St. Basil, 66).
Gregory of Nyssa: "This is the book of the generation of heaven and earth," saith the Scripture, when all that is seen was finished, and each of the things that are betook itself to its own separate place, when the body of heaven compassed all things round, and those bodies which are heavy and of downward tendency, the earth and the water, holding each other in, took the middle place of the universe; while, as a sort of bond and stability for the things that were made, the Divine power and skill was implanted in the growth of things, guiding all things with the reins of a double operation (for it was by rest and motion that it devised the genesis of the things that were not, and the continuance of the things that are), driving around, about the heavy and changeless element contributed by the creation that does not move, as about some fixed path, the exceedingly rapid motion of the sphere, like a wheel, and preserving the indissolubility of both by their mutual action, as the circling substance by its rapid motion compresses the compact body of the earth round about, while that which is firm and unyielding, by reason of its unchanging fixedness, continually augments the whirling motion of those things which revolve round it, and intensity s is produced in equal measure in each of the natures which thus differ in their operation, in the stationary nature, I mean, and in the mobile revolution; for neither is the earth shifted from its own base, nor does the heaven ever relax in its vehemence, or slacken its motion. (On the Making of Man, 30, 1, 1)
Gregory of Nyssa: But, boasting as they do that they know these things, let them first tell us about the things of inferior nature; what they think of the body of the heavens, of the machinery which conveys the stars in their eternal courses, or of the sphere in which they move; for, however far speculation may proceed, when it comes to the uncertain and incomprehensible it must stop. For though any one say that another body, like in fashion (to that body of the heavens), fitting to its circular shape, checks its velocity, so that, ever turning in its course, it revolves conformably to that other upon itself, being retained by the force that embraces it from flying off at a tangent, yet how can he assert that these bodies will remain unspent by their constant friction with each other? And how, again, is motion produced in the case of two coeval bodies mutually conformed, when the one remains motionless (for the inner body, one would have thought, being held as in a vice by the motionlessness of that which embraces it, will be quite unable to act); and what is it that maintains the embracing body in its fixedness, so that it remains unshaken and unaffected by the motion of that which fits into it? (Answer to Eunomius’ Second Book)
Gregory of Nyssa: And how does earth below form the foundation of the whole, and what is it that keeps it firmly in its place? what is it that controls its downward tendency? If any one should interrogate us on these and such-like points, will any of us be found so presumptuous as to promise an explanation of them? No! the only reply that can be given by men of sense is this:--that He Who made all things in wisdom can alone furnish an account of His creation. For ourselves, "through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God," as saith the Apostle. (Answer to Eunomius’ Second Book)
Gregory of Nyssa: “...the vault of heaven prolongs itself so uninterruptedly that it encircles all things with itself, and that the earth and its surroundings are poised in the middle, and that the motion of all the revolving bodies is round this fixed and solid center...” (On the Soul and Resurrection)
Gregory of Nyssa: “...on whatever side the sun's rays may fall on some particular point of the globe, if we follow a straight diameter, we shall find shadow upon the opposite point, and so, continuously, at the opposite end of the direct line of the rays shadow moves round that globe, keeping pace with the sun, so that equally in their turn both the upper half and the under half of the earth are in light and darkness...” (On the Soul and Resurrection)
Gregory of Nyssa: And when you look at the waning and waxing moon you are taught other truths by the visible figure of that heavenly body, viz. that it is in itself devoid of light, and that it revolves in the circle nearest to the earth, and that it is lit by light from the sun; just as is the case with mirrors, which, receiving the sun upon them, do not reflect rays of their own, but those of the sun, whose light is given back from their smooth flashing surface. Those who see this, but do not examine it, think that the light comes from the moon herself. But that this is not the case is proved by this; that when she is diametrically facing the sun she has the whole of the disc that looks our way illuminated; but, as she traverses her own circle of revolution quicker from moving in a narrower space, she herself has completed this more than twelve times before the sun has once traveled round his; whence it happens that her substance is not always covered with light. (On the Soul and Resurrection).
Gregory Thaumaturgos: And the life of men weareth away, as day by day, and in the periods of hours and years, and the determinate courses of the sun, some are ever coming, and others passing away. And the matter is like the transit of torrents as they fall into the measureless deep of the sea with a mighty noise. And all things that have been constituted by God for the sake of men abide the same: as, for instance, I that man is born of earth, and departs to earth again; that the earth itself continues stable; that the sun accomplishes its circuit about it perfectly, and rolls round to the same mark again; and that the winds in like manner, and the mighty rivers which flow into the sea, and the breezes that beat upon it, all act without forcing it to pass beyond its limits, and without themselves also violating their appointed laws. (On Ecclesiastes, Ch 1, 2)
Hippolytus: When Hezekiah, king of Judah, was still sick and weeping, there came an angel, and said to him: "I have seen thy tears, and I have heard thy voice. Behold, I add unto thy time fifteen years. And this shall be a sign to thee from the Lord: Behold, I turn back the shadow of the degrees of the house of thy father, by which the sun has gone down, the ten degrees by which the shadow has gone down," so that day be a day of thirty-two hours. For when the sun had run its course to the tenth hour, it returned again. And again, when Joshua the son of Nun was fighting against the Amorites, when the sun was now inclining to its setting, and the battle was being pressed closely, Joshua, being anxious lest the heathen host should escape on the descent of night, cried out, saying, "Sun, stand thou still in Gibeon; and thou moon, in the valley of Ajalon," until I vanquish this people. And the sun stood still, and the moon, in their places, so that day was one of twenty-four hours. And in the time of Hezekiah the moon also turned back along with the sun, that there might be no collision between the two elemental bodies, by their bearing against each other in defiance of law. And Merodach the Chaldean, king of Babylon, being struck with amazement at that time--for he studied the science of astrology, and measured the courses of these bodies carefully – on learning the cause, sent a letter and gifts to Hezekiah, just as also the wise men from the east did to Christ. (Fragments, I, Discourse on Hezekiah).
Hippolytus: We find in the commentaries, written by our predecessors, that day had thirty-two hours. For when the sun had run its course, and reached the tenth hour, and the shadow had gone down by the ten degrees in the house of the temple, the sun turned back again by the ten degrees, according to the word of the Lord, and there were thus twenty hours. And again, the sun accomplished its own proper course, according to the common law, and reached its setting. And thus there were thirty-two hours. (Fragments, III, Discourse on Hezekiah).
Hippolytus: For what richer beauty can there be than that of the circle of heaven? And what form of more blooming fairness than that of earth’s surface? And what is there swifter in the course than the chariot of the sun? And what more graceful car than the lunar orb? And what work more wonderful than the compact mosaic of the stars? And what more productive of supplies than the seasonable winds? And what more spotless mirror than the light of day? And what creature more excellent than man?(Discourse on the Holy Theophany, 1)
Hippolytus: [Refuting the view of the Greek Ecphantus]: “And that the earth in the middle of the cosmical system is moved round its own center towards the east.” (The Prooemium, Ch XIII)
Irenaeus: The sun also, who runs through his orbit in twelve months, and then returns to the same point in the circle (Against Heresies, Bk I, Ch XVII, 1)
Jerome: In Exodus we read that the battle was fought against Amalek while Moses prayed, and the whole people fasted until the evening. Joshua, the son of Nun, bade sun and moon stand still, and the victorious army prolonged its fast for more than a day. (Against Jovinianus, Bk 2).
Jerome: The moon may dispute over her eclipses and ceaseless toil, and ask why she must traverse every month the yearly orbit of the sun. The sun may complain and want to know what he has done that he travels more slowly than the moon. (Against the Pelagians, Bk I, 19)
John Damascene: For it is night when the sun is under the earth, and the duration of night is the course of the sun under the earth from its rising till its setting. (The Orthodox Faith, Bk 2, Ch 7)
Justin Martyr: The former, after he had been named Jesus (Joshua), and after he had received strength from. His Spirit, caused the sun to stand still. (Dialogue with Trypho, Ch CXIII)
Justin Martyr: And again, when the land was given up to you with so great a display of power, that you witnessed the sun stand still in the heavens by the order of that man whose name was Jesus (Joshua), and not go down for thirty-six hours, as well as all the other miracles which were wrought for you as time served; and of these it seems good to me now to speak of another, for it conduces to your hereby knowing Jesus, whom we also know to have been Christ the Son of God, who was crucified, and rose again, and ascended to heaven, and will come again to judge all men, even up to Adam himself. (Dialogue with Trypho, Ch CXXXII)
Mathetes: by whom He made the heavens – by whom he enclosed the sea within its proper bounds--whose ordinances all the stars faithfully observe--from whom the sun has received the measure of his daily course to be observed – whom the moon obeys, being commanded to shine in the night, and whom the stars also obey, following the moon in her course; by whom all things have been arranged, and placed within their proper limits (To Diognetes, Ch 7).
Methodius: And, of a truth, it seemed worth while to inquire also about the sun,--what is the manner of his being set in the heaven; also what is the orbit he traverses; also whither it is that, after a short time, he retires; and why it is that even he does not go out of his proper course: but he, too, as one may say, is observing a commandment of a higher power, and appears with us just when he is allowed to do so, and departs as if he were called away. (Concerning Free Will)
Methodius: Resuming then, let us first lay bare, in speaking of those things according to our power, the imposture of those who boast as though they alone had comprehended from what forms the heaven is arranged, in accordance with the hypothesis of the Chaldeans and Egyptians. For they say that the circumference of the world is likened to the turnings of a well-rounded globe, the earth having a central point. For its outline being spherical, it is necessary, they say, since there are the same distances of the parts, that the earth should be the center of the universe, around which, as being older, the heaven is whirling. For if a circumference is described from the central point, which seems to be a circle, for it is impossible for a circle to be described without a point, and it is impossible for a circle to be without a point,--surely the earth consisted before all, they say, in a state of chaos and disorganization. (Banquet of the Ten Virgins, Discourse VIII, Ch XIV)
Tertullian: In Exodus, was not that position of Moses, battling against Amalek by prayers, maintained as it was perseveringly even till "sunset," a "late Station?" Think we that Joshua the son of Nun, when warring down the Amorites, had breakfasted on that day on which he ordered the very elements to keep a Station? The sun "stood" in Gibeon, and the moon in Ajalon; the sun and the moon "stood in station until the People was avenged of his enemies, and the sun stood in the mid heaven." When, moreover, (the sun) did draw toward his setting and the end of the one day, there was no such day beforetime and in the latest time (of course, (no day) so long), "that God," says (the writer), "should hear a man" – (a man,) to be sure, the sun's peer, so long persistent in his duty – a Station longer even than late. (On Fasting, Ch X)
Memoirs of Edessa: For look at the sun, and the moon, and the signs of the zodiac,(4) and all the other creatures which are greater than we in some points, and see how individual freedom has been denied them, and how they are all fixed in their course by decree, so that they may do that only which is decreed for them, and nothing else. For the sun never says, I will not rise at my appointed time; nor the moon, I will not change, nor wane, nor wax; nor does any one of the stars say, I will not rise nor set. (Book of the Laws)



So by means of general revelation did Aquinas acquire a geocentric view of the universe.  The early church upon the scriptures and early science held the same view.  How can Hugh Ross and other neo-thomist claim that natural revelation which is equally available to every generation some how would have given them advantage over the natural revelation given to Aquinas and his contemporaries?
The obvious rebuttal is that they have received greater knowledge than the ancient authorities. But THIS WOULD NOT BE GENERAL REVELATION. It has to be raw secular knowledge.  Because God did not provide the whole of human civilization with knowledge or even ability to determine a heliocentric, big bang cosmology nor darwinian evolutionary worldview.
So then the argument boils down to the Word of God vs. the Word of Man.

Who has a more objective view of the universe?  Man? or God?
For the believer it is obvious that Scripture would have more authority.
1 timothy 6:20 O Timothy, keep that which is committed to thy trust, avoiding profane and vain babblings, and oppositions of science falsely so called: 21 which some professing have erred concerning the faith.
Colossians 2:Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the rudiments of the world, and not after Christ.
General revelation according to the Bible teaches us Biblical doctrine and condemns those who do not conform to the Word of God.
John 3: 19 And this is the condemnation, that light is come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil. 20 For every one that doeth evil hateth the light, neither cometh to the light, lest his deeds should be reproved. 21 But he that doeth truth cometh to the light, that his deeds may be made manifest, that they are wrought in God.
Romans 1:
18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness; 19 because that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God hath shewed it unto them. 20 For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse: 21 because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened. 22 Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools, 23 and changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things. 24 Wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonour their own bodies between themselves: 25 who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen."
  We need the gospel From the Word of God to receive God.
Romans 10: But the righteousness which is of faith speaketh on this wise, Say not in thine heart, Who shall ascend into heaven? (that is, to bring Christ down from above:) or, Who shall descend into the deep? (that is, to bring up Christ again from the dead.) But what saith it? The word is nigh thee, even in thy mouth, and in thy heart: that is, the word of faith, which we preach; that if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved. 10 For with the heart man believeth unto righteousness; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation. 11 For the scripture saith, Whosoever believeth on him shall not be ashamed. 12 For there is no difference between the Jew and the Greek: for the same Lord over all is rich unto all that call upon him. 13 For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved. 14 How then shall they call on him in whom they have not believed? and how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard? and how shall they hear without a preacher? 15 and how shall they preach, except they be sent? as it is written, How beautiful are the feet of them that preach the gospel of peace, and bring glad tidings of good things!
  But their is nothing that needs to be added to God's Words.
proverbs 30: Who hath ascended up into heaven, or descended?
who hath gathered the wind in his fists?
who hath bound the waters in a garment?
who hath established all the ends of the earth?
what is his name, and what is his son’s name,
if thou canst tell?
Proverbs 30: Every word of God is pure:
he is a shield unto them that put their trust in him.
Add thou not unto his words,
lest he reprove thee, and thou be found a liar."
The apostles received all truth from the Holy Spirit 
John 16:13 Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak: and he will shew you things to come. 14 He shall glorify me: for he shall receive of mine, and shall shew it unto you. 15 All things that the Father hath are mine: therefore said I, that he shall take of mine, and shall shew it unto you. 
  We have enough revelation from the scriptures 
2 timothy 3: 15 and that from a child thou hast known the holy scriptures, which are able to make thee wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus. 16 All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: 17 that the man of God may be perfect, throughly furnished unto all good works.